Skip to main content

Table 1 Phenotypic profile of included participants of the CoDuBu study in south-central Côte d’Ivoire

From: Validity and cardio-metabolic risk profiles of DNA methylation clocks among adults in south-central Côte d’Ivoire

Phenotype Subphenotype N (%) Mean (SD)
Chronological age (years) All   41.5 (13.1)
Sex Females 189 (48.1)  
Males 204 (51.9)  
Formal education None 190 (48.3)  
Primary 90 (22.9)  
Secondary or tertiary 113 (28.8)  
Household wealth index All   − 0.3 (3.2)
Area Rural 215 (54.7)  
Urban 178 (45.3)  
Smoking status Never-smoker 333 (84.7)  
Former smoker 29 (7.4)  
Current smoker 31 (7.9)  
Alcohol consumption score (AUDIT-C) a All   1.2 (2.0)
Low risk 239 (60.8)  
Moderate risk 89 (22.7)  
High risk 65 (16.5)  
Physical activity (MVPA; min·week−1) b All   2447 (999)
Sufficient activity 387 (98.5)  
Insufficient activity 6 (1.5)  
Body mass index (BMI; kg·m−2) c All   23.3 (4.1)
Underweight 28 (7.1)  
Normal weight 264 (67.2)  
Overweight 71 (18.1)  
Obese 30 (7.6)  
Metabolic syndrome components d Central obesity 100 (25.4)  
Raised blood pressure 123 (31.3)  
Impaired fasting glucose 220 (56.0)  
Low HDL-cholesterol 196 (49.9)  
High triglycerides 32 (8.1)  
Metabolic syndrome severity e All   1.7 (1.1)
0 51 (13.0)  
1 132 (33.6)  
2 123 (31.3)  
3 59 (15.0)  
4 24 (6.1)  
5 4 (1.0)  
Metabolic syndrome ≥ 3 components 87 (22.1)  
  1. AUDIT-C alcohol-use disorder identification test-consumption, CoDuBu Côte d’Ivoire dual burden of disease study, HDL high-density lipoprotein, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, (%) count and frequency of variable, SD standard deviation
  2. aAUDIT-C score classification for risky alcohol consumption (males): 0–4 (low); 5–7 (moderate); 8–12 (high). Females: 0–3 (low); 4–7 (moderate); 8–12 (high)
  3. bInsufficient physical activity defined as having less than 150 min per week of MVPA
  4. cBMI classification: < 18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal weight), 25–29.9 (overweight), ≥ 30 (obesity)
  5. dCentral obesity defined as having a waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (males) and ≥ 80 cm (females). Raised blood pressure defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or use of blood pressure-lowering medication or having clinician-diagnosed hypertension. Impaired fasting glucose defined as having fasting glucose ≥ 5.6 or presence of clinician-diagnosed diabetes or use of glucose-lowering medication. Low HDL was defined as < 1.0 mmol·L−1 and < 1.3 mmol L−1 in males and females, respectively, whereas high triglycerides was defined as ≥ 1.7 mmol L−1
  6. eDegree of severity defined by accumulation of number of metabolic syndrome components described above