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Table 3 Sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of epigenetic age acceleration in the CoDuBu study, south-central Côte d’Ivoire

From: Validity and cardio-metabolic risk profiles of DNA methylation clocks among adults in south-central Côte d’Ivoire

Model Risk factor IEAA EEAA PhenoAA GrimAA
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
1 Female Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Male 1.60 (0.51, 2.69)** 2.94 (1.45, 4.44)*** 0.52 (− 0.93, 1.97) 2.72 (1.99, 3.44)***
2 Primary education or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Higher education 0.66 (− 0.72, 2.04) − 0.45 (− 2.31, 1.41) − 0.08 (− 1.80, 1.95) − 0.03 (− 0.95, 0.89)
2 Lower wealth tertiles Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Highest wealth tertile − 0.54 (− 2.01, 0.94) − 1.94 (− 3.93, 0.06)* − 2.16 (− 4.17, − 0.15)** − 0.54 (− 1.53, 0.44)
2 Rural area Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Urban area 0.79 (− 0.57, 2.13) − 1.38 (− 3.19, 0.44) − 0.68 (− 2.49, 1.13) 0.15 (− 0.75, 1.05)
3 Never-smokers Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Ever-smokers 0.36 (− 1.34, 2.06) − 1.56 (− 3.85, 0.74) 1.44 (− 0.80, 3.67) 3.45 (2.37, 4.53)***
3 Low-risk drinking (AUDIT-C) Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
High-risk drinking 0.54 (− 0.63, 1.71) 0.44 (− 1.14, 2.01) 1.52 (− 0.01, 3.06)* 0.78 (0.04, 1.52)**
3 Physical activity (min·week−1) − 0.50 (− 1.10, 0.09)* 0.04 (− 0.76, 0.85) − 0.11 (− 0.89, 0.68) − 0.06 (− 0.44, 0.31)
3 More active thirds c Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Least active third 0.62 (− 0.65, 1.88) 0.03 (− 1.67, 1.73) 0.29 (− 1.37, 1.94) 0.29 (− 0.52, 1.09)
4 Body mass index [BMI] (kg·m−2) 0.05 (− 0.55, 0.64) 0.26 (− 0.55, 1.06) 0.43 (− 0.35, 1.22) − 0.12 (− 0.50, 0.25)
4 BMI < 25 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
BMI ≥ 25 0.15 (− 1.21, 1.51) 0.37 (− 1.46, 2.20) 0.10 (− 1.68, 1.88) 0.03 (− 0.83, 0.89)
  1. AUDIT-C alcohol-use disorder identification test-consumption, β beta-coefficient, CI, confidence interval, CoDuBu Côte d’Ivoire dual burden of disease study, EEAA extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, GrimAA GrimAge acceleration, IEAA intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, PhenoAA PhenoAge acceleration. Rural area represents Amani-Ménou and Tokohiri whereas urban area represents Taabo-Cité
  2. aHigh-risk consumption defined as AUDIT-C score > 3 (females) or > 4 (males), whereas low-risk consumption is defined as scoring less than the aforementioned scores. Beta-coefficients represent change in mean age acceleration in each risk group compared to a reference group, or per standard deviation increase in risk factor (physical activity and BMI). *p value < 0.1. **p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001
  3. Precision of estimates stable in fully adjusted Model 4
  4. Model 1 Adjusted for chronological age
  5. Model 2 Model 1 + education, household wealth and urbanization
  6. Model 3 Model 2 + smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Linear and categorical estimates for physical activity were derived from separate models
  7. Model 4 Model 3 + BMI. Linear and categorical estimates for BMI were derived from separate models